The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter

2,300+ Scientific Citations (> 22,000 experimental data values)

A total of 2300+ historical scientific citations concerned with the experimental stopping and range of ions in matter are available in the below table. The citations are shown as Adobe Acrobat PDF files. The citations start from the 1900 paper by Mme. Sklodowska-Curie, Sur la Penetration des Rayons de Becquerel non Deviables par le Champ Magnetique, published in Acad. Sci. of Paris. For this paper (and following papers), Madame Curie received the Nobel Prize in Physics just 3 years later (1903) for this prophetic work.

Below are plots of ALL the stopping data listed in these 2,300+ citations: a total of more than 22,000 experimental stopping data values.

 

The data from all these historical documents are shown in 450 plots below, which contain more than 22,000 experimental data values. It is easiest if you first look at this large table of items, before reading the detailed explanations below.

 

Comments on Plots and Citations (below table):

Look at the below Column 4 marked "Hydrogen Ion Stopping - Plots of Data & Citations ", this column gives access to the experimental results from more than 700 papers of the stopping of protons in elemental targets (targets consisting of only one element- no compounds).

         As an example, the top selection in this column is for a target of Hydrogen gas. If you click on the tab Plot, you will open a plot of Hydrogen Ion experimental stopping data from 30 papers.

o   The upper graph shows these data plotted with the SRIM stopping calculation for this ion/target. The value noted as Data Sets = 13 (134 pts), means that data from a total of 13 papers are included in the plot, and there are 134 experimental data points plotted. The note: Mean Error = 2.8% shows the average deviation of the data from the SRIM curve.

o   The lower graph plots the percent deviation of each data-point from SRIM. Most of the data points are well within 5% of the zero line..

o   To identify the individual data points, go to the upper-right part of the graph and note the color-coding or each paper. The top paper is labeled 1953-Phil and indicates that there are 8 BLUE data points, all of which are below 1 MeV. (The column Pts <1 means the number of data points less than 1 MeV/amu.)

o   If you now click on the tab Citations for this ion/target of H ions in H, you will get a listing of 37 papers (not all of which have experimental stopping data). The 6th citation is dated 1953, by J. A. Philips. This is the paper of these 8 data points. Looking at the lower plot, you will see these 8 data points in the lower part of the display, ranging from 10-80 keV/amu.

o   The main purpose of this plot is to evaluate if the ions stopping is accurately calculated by SRIM (especially the ions charge state in this target as a function of energy).

         Looking further at the Citations for H ions in H gas, at the bottom of each item are Comments which use the abbreviations: R = Ranges, dR = Range straggling, S = Stopping Powers, dS = Straggling in Stopping. This describes the kind of data presented in each paper. If you look at the top 5 citations, dating from 1930 to 1953, only one shows measurements of Stopping: 1942-Crenshaw. The Crenshaw paper reported stopping relative to stopping in air, and not absolute values (see note under the citation). That why these papers are not included in the plot. The first paper with experimental data is that of J. A. Philips (1953).

Columns 4, 5 and 6 (in table below) are similar Experimental Data plots and Citations about H, He and Li ions stopping in Elemental Targets.

Column 8 lists citations/plots for Ion Stopping (All Targets). For any Ion, stopping is shown for All elemental Targets. There are the same dual plots of data as above.

         Clicking on the top Plot tab in this column shows Hydrogen ion stopping in All Targets. A total of 5940 data points from 69 papers are plotted in this plot. Wow!

         The adjacent Citations tab shows 70 pages of 629 papers. This is overwhelming.

         But if you go down to less studied ions in column 8, such as Silver (47), there are only 19 citations of silver ions stopping in elemental targets, with a total of 56 data points in 13 papers plotted.

         The main purpose of this kind of plot is to evaluate if the ions stopping is accurately calculated by SRIM (especially the ions charge state as a function of energy).

Column 9 lists citations/plots for Target Stopping (All Ions). For any elemental Target, Stopping is shown for All Ions. There are the same dual plots of data as above.

         The main purpose of these plots is to evaluate if stopping values are accurately calculated by SRIM (especially the band-gap and electron mobility in each target material).

         In the upper plot, the data are normalized to one stopping target, usually Aluminum (Al-27). That means if one is considering the stopping of the ion in a target of Gold (Au-79), and the experimental value at a specific energy is 5% higher than theory, then it is plotted as 5% higher than that ions stopping for Aluminum. That makes the distribution of experimental data to appear similar to how it would look if plotted against its own stopping curve.

         As with Column 8, some targets have a huge data set. For a Target = Aluminum, there are 2126 data points from 276 papers, and for Gold there are 2567 points, from 315 papers.


All Citation files are in Adobe Acrobat format (www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html). The Acrobat Reader does not work well with all browsers. If you have trouble viewing the files below in your browser window, right-click on the link and Save it to your hard disk. Then use your local copy of Acrobat Reader to view and print the file. Acrobat usually works OK on files on your own computer, where you don't have to look at the file in a browser format..


For similar discussions of Stopping see:

        Stopping in Compounds

        High Energy Stopping

         Ranges of Ions

         Including SRIM in other Software

        (Return to SRIM Menu)


 

Data Plots and Citations of Stopping of Ions in Matter

- 1 -

Ion or

Target

Name

- 2 -Atomic

Number

- 3 -

Target

Phase

- 4 -

Hydrogen

Ion Stopping

Plots of Data

& Citations

- 5-

Helium

Ion Stopping

Plots of Data

& Citations

- 6-

Lithium

Ion Stopping

Plots of Data

& Citations

- 7-

Atomic

Number

- 8 -

Ion

Stopping

(All Targets)

- 9 -

Target

Stopping

(All Ions)

- 10 -

Atomic

Number

- 11 -

Ion or

Target

Name

Hydrogen

01

gas

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

01

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

01

Hydrogen

Helium

02

gas

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

02

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

02

Helium

Lithium

03

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

03

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

03

Lithium

Beryllium

04

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

04

Plot

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Plot

Citations

04

Beryllium

Boron

05

solid

Plot

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Plot

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Plot

Citations

05

Plot

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Plot

Citations

05

Boron

Carbon

06

solid

Plot

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Plot

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Plot

Citations

06

Plot

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Plot

Citations

06

Carbon

Nitrogen

07

gas

Plot

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Plot

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Plot

Citations

07

Plot

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Plot

Citations

07

Nitrogen

Oxygen

08

gas

Plot

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Plot

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Plot

Citations

08

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

08

Oxygen

Fluorine

09

gas

Plot

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Plot

none

Plot

none

09

Plot

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Plot

Citations

09

Fluorine

Neon

10

gas

Plot

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Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

10

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

10

Neon

Sodium

11

solid

Plot

none

Plot

none

Plot

Citations

11

Plot

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Plot

Citations

11

Sodium

Magnesium

12

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

12

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

12

Magnesium

Aluminum

13

solid

Plot

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Plot

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Plot

Citations

13

Plot

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Plot

Citations

13

Aluminum

Silicon

14

solid

Plot

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Plot

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Plot

Citations

14

Plot

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Plot

Citations

14

Silicon

Phosphorus

15

solid

Plot

none

Plot

none

Plot

Citations

15

Plot

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Plot

Citations

15

Phosphorus

Sulfur

16

solid

Plot

none

Plot

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Plot

Citations

16

Plot

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Plot

Citations

16

Sulfur

Chlorine

17

gas

Plot

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Plot

Citations

17

Plot

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Plot

Citations

17

Chlorine

Argon

18

gas

Plot

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Plot

Citations

18

Plot

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Plot

Citations

18

Argon

Potassium

19

solid

Plot

none

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none

Plot

Citations

19

Plot

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Plot

Citations

19

Potassium

Calcium

20

solid

Plot

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Plot

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Plot

Citations

20

Plot

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Plot

Citations

20

Calcium

Scandium

21

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

21

Plot

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Plot

Citations

21

Scandium

Titanium

22

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

22

Plot

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Plot

Citations

22

Titanium

Vanadium

23

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

23

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Citations

23

Vanadium

Chromium

24

solid

Plot

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Citations

24

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Citations

24

Chromium

Manganese

25

solid

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Citations

25

Plot

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Plot

Citations

25

Manganese

Iron

26

solid

Plot

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Citations

26

Plot

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Plot

Citations

26

Iron

Cobalt

27

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

27

Plot

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Plot

Citations

27

Cobalt

Nickel

28

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

28

Plot

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Plot

Citations

28

Nickel

Copper

29

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

29

Plot

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Plot

Citations

29

Copper

Zinc

30

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

30

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

30

Zinc

Gallium

31

solid

Plot

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Citations

31

Plot

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Plot

Citations

31

Gallium

Germanium

32

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

32

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

32

Germanium

Arsenic

33

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

33

Plot

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Plot

Citations

33

Arsenic

Selenium

34

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

34

Plot

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Plot

Citations

34

Selenium

Bromine

35

gas

Plot

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Plot

Citations

Plot

none

35

Plot

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Plot

Citations

35

Bromine

Krypton

36

gas

Plot

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Plot

Citations

36

Plot

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Citations

36

Krypton

Rubidium

37

solid

Plot

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none

Plot

Citations

37

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Plot

Citations

37

Rubidium

Strontium

38

solid

Plot

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Citations

38

Plot

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Citations

38

Strontium

Yttrium

39

solid

Plot

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Citations

39

Plot

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Citations

39

Yttrium

Zirconium

40

solid

Plot

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Citations

40

Plot

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Citations

40

Zirconium

Niobium

41

solid

Plot

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Citations

41

Plot

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Citations

41

Niobium

Molybdenum

42

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

42

Plot

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Plot

Citations

42

Molybdenum

Technetium

43

solid

 

none

 

none

 

none

43

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

43

Technetium

Ruthenium

44

solid

 

none

 

Citations

 

none

44

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

44

Ruthenium

Rhodium

45

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

 

none

45

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

45

Rhodium

Palladium

46

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

46

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

46

Palladium

Silver

47

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

47

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

47

Silver

Ion or

Target

Name

Atomic

Number

Target

Phase

Hydrogen

Ion Stopping

Helium

Ion Stopping

Lithium

Ion Stopping

Ion or

Target

Number

Ion

Stopping

(All Targets)

Target

Stopping

(All Ions)

Atomic

Number

Ion or

Target

Name

Cadmium

48

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

48

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

48

Cadmium

Indium

49

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

49

Plot

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Plot

Citations

49

Indium

Tin

50

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

50

Plot

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Plot

Citations

50

Tin

Antimony

51

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

51

Plot

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Plot

Citations

51

Antimony

Tellurium

52

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

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Plot

Citations

52

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

52

Tellurium

Iodine

53

gas

 

none

Plot

none

Plot

none

53

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none

Plot

Citations

53

Iodine

Xenon

54

gas

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

54

Plot

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Plot

Citations

54

Xenon

Cesium

55

solid

Plot

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Plot

Citations

55

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Plot

Citations

55

Cesium

Barium

56

solid

 

none

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

56

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Plot

Citations

56

Barium

Lanthanum

57

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

57

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

57

Lanthanum

Cerium

58

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

58

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

58

Cerium

Praseodymium

59

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

59

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

59

Praseodymium

Neodymium

60

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

Plot

none

60

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

60

Neodymium

Promethium

61

solid

Plot

none

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none

Plot

none

61

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

61

Promethium

Samarium

62

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

Plot

none

62

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

62

Samarium

Europium

63

solid

 

none

Plot

none

Plot

none

63

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

63

Europium

Gadolinium

64

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

64

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

64

Gadolinium

Terbium

65

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

65

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

65

Terbium

Dysprosium

66

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

66

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

66

Dysprosium

Holium

67

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

67

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

67

Holium

Erbium

68

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

68

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

68

Erbium

Thulium

69

solid

 

none

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

69

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

69

Thulium

Ytterbium

70

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

70

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

70

Ytterbium

Lutetium

71

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

Plot

Citations

71

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

71

Lutetium

Hafnium

72

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

72

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

72

Hafnium

Tantalum

73

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

73

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

73

Tantalum

Tungsten

74

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

74

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

74

Tungsten

Rhenium

75

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

none

Plot

none

75

 

none

Plot

Citations

75

Rhenium

Osmium

76

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

76

 

none

Plot

Citations

76

Osmium

Iridium

77

solid

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

77

Plot

Citations

Plot

Citations

77