The Stopping and Range
of Ions in Matter
James F. Ziegler, Jochen P. Biersack, Matthias D. Ziegler
Ch 1 - Historical Review
Ch 2 - Nuclear Stopping of Ions
Ch 3 - Electronic Stopping of Ions
Ch 4 - Stopping of Energetic Light Ions
Ch 5 - Stopping of Ions in Compounds
Ch 6 - Ion Straggling
Ch 7 - TRIM : Scientific Background
Ch 8 - TRIM : Setup and Input
Ch 9 - TRIM : Output Files
Ch 10 - Stopping and Range Tables
Ch 11 - SRIM Tutorials
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The SRIM textbook covers the physical phenomena associated with the penetration of energetic ions into matter. It is primarily concerned with the quantitative evaluation of how ions lose energy into matter and the final distribution of these ions after they stop within the target. Also considered are the first order effects of the atoms on solids, particularly the electronic excitation of the atoms, the displacement of lattice atoms by energetic collisions (lattice damage) and the production of plasmons and phonons within the solid by the passing ions. No evaluation is made of thermal effects in the solid, especially redistribution of lattice atoms or implanted ions by thermal or vacancy induced diffusions.
The scientific literature contains a large amount of experimentally determined stopping powers and ion range distributions. These are not, however, so accurate or dense that direct interpolation to other systems is usually possible. The main goal of this work is to establish methods for determining the stopping and range of ions based on accurate experimental data and extending these values using unified theoretical concepts.
The theoretical chapters of this book are Chapters 2 (Nuclear Stopping in Matter) and 3 (Electronic Stopping in Matter) and they are presented in an elementary tutorial style which needs little background. Chapter 3 presents the traditional stopping of point charges in matter which can be quite accurate for energetic H or He ions (>2 MeV/u) in targets.
Chapter 5 discusses the important matter of variations in stopping in targets in various phases (solid, liquid and gas) and the effects of chemical binding on stopping in compounds.
Chapter 6 is a chapter on the most challenging subject of this book – straggling. It considers the variations of stopping and ranges of ions about their mean values. It is recommended for those who like deep mathematical challenges.
Chapters 7-9 discuss the TRIM software code. Chapter 7 gives the scientific and mathematical background. Chapter 8 discusses how to set TRIM up for a wide range of problems. And Chapter 9 evaluates the various types of output files, and what they mean.
Chapter 10 is a discussion of PRAL, and transport calculation for quick tables of the range of ions in targets.
Chapter 11 is a set of Tutorials to help students and new users to become used to SRIM.